ایران ۱۴۰۴

سلاح های اسرائیلی۲ (تانک مرکاوا)
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱٠:٥۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٦/٤/۱۳
 
Merkava Mk. 4
The Israeli Ministry of Defence held the roll out ceremony of the new main battle tank Merkava, Merkava 4, on 24 June 2002. The 65t Merkava 4 main battle tank entered full production in 2001 and will be in service with the Israel Defence Forces by 2004. The Ministry of Defence will manufacture between 50 and 70 Merkava 4 tanks per year and initial estimates indicate that up to 400 tanks will be manufactured. The Merkava 4 has been extensively improved and features new armour protection and gun and electronics systems.
The Merkava 4 is slightly larger than the Merkava 3 Baz, which has been in service with the IDF since 1990. The Merkava 3 is offered for export by SIBAT based in Tel Aviv. The Merkava 4 is not offered for export but the systems and components are exported.
The tank is capable of carrying eight infantry soldiers, a Command Group or three litter patients (stretcher casualties) in addition to the tank crew of commander, loader, gunner and driver. The tank is capable of firing on the move at moving targets and has demonstrated high hit probability in firing against attack helicopters using conventional anti-tank munitions.
Major contractors include: the El Op Electro-Optic Industries subsidiary of Elbit Systems which is responsible for the fire control system; the Israel Defence Force which carries out main construction and system integration and testing; Israel Military Industries for the supply of the main gun, ballistic protection and munitions; Imco Industries for the electrical systems; Urdan Industries for the hull, main turret and castings; and IAI Ramta for protection components.
The main part of the tank production, the construction of the hull and integration of all the systems is carried out in the Israel Defence Force Workshop.
 
Tank Weaponry
 
The Merkava 4 has a new all electric turret developed by Elbit and subsidiary El-Op. Only one hatch is installed in the turret, the commander's hatch.
The improved 120mm smooth bore gun has been developed by Israel Military Industries. The new gun is an advanced generation of the gun developed for the Merkava 3. A Vidco thermal shroud on the gun reduces bending of the barrel resulting from environmental and firing conditions. The gun can fire higher power munitions including new 120mm high penetration projectiles and guided shells. The loader can select semi-automatically the ammunition type. The tank carries 48 rounds of ammunition each stored in a protective container. An electrically operated revolving magazine contains 10 ready-to-fire rounds.
The range of ammunition includes APFSDS-T M711 (CL 3254), the HEAT-MP-T M325 (CL 3105) and the TPCSDS-T M324 (CL 3139) supplied by the Ammunition Group of Israel Military Industries. The gun is also capable of firing French, German or US 120mm rounds.
The tank is fitted with 7.62mm machine guns and an internally operated 60mm mortar system developed by Soltam Ltd. The mortar can fire explosive and illumination rounds to a range of 2,700m.
The protection suite includes an advanced electromagnetic threat identification and warning system.
 
10P Revolving Magazine of the Merkava Mk. 4
 
A microprocessor controlled, fully automated, electrically driven, 120 mm rounds magazine. The system is located in an isolated space of the turret and is designed to protect the crew in case of ammunition explosion. The system is easy to operate from the crew compartment. The loader can select proper ammunition out of four different types and 10 rounds total.
 
El Op Fire Control
 
The new fire control system, developed by El Op, includes very advanced features including the capability to acquire and lock onto moving targets, even airborne helicopters, while the tank itself is on the move.
The computer controlled fire control system includes line of sight stabilisation in two axes, a second-generation television sight and automatic thermal target tracker, a laser range finder, an improved thermal night vision system and a dynamic cant angle indicator. The commander's station is fitted with a stabilised panoramic day and night sight. The integrated operating system includes advanced data communications and battle management. Tadiran developed the Merkava's communications system, the inter communication system and the VRC 120 vehicular transceiver radio with embedded auxiliary receivers.
 
GD 883 V-12 Diesel Engine
 
The Merkava 4 is powered by a V-12 diesel engine rated at 1,500hp. The engine compartment and one fuel tank are at the front of the tank and two fuel tanks are at the back. The new engine represents a 25% increase in power compared to the 1,200hp powerpack installed on the Merkava 3.
The German company MTU manufactures the engine components and the GD 883 engine is manufactured under licensed production by General Dynamics Land Systems in the USA. The engine is transferred to Israel for installation and integration with the automatic transmission and with the engine computer control system. The tank has automatic five-gear transmission rather than four gears as in the Merkava 3. The transmission system is manufactured by Renk. The single position rotary shock absorbers are installed externally.
 
Hull
 
The redesign of the hull around the installation of the new powerpack has provided improved frontal armour protection and improvement to the driver's field of view. For improved reverse driving the driver uses a camera.
A new feature of the tank is that the fitted modular special armour covers the turret. The tank is protected against a range of threats, including air launched precision guided missiles and advanced and top attack anti-tank weapons. Automatic fire detection and suppression has been installed. The underside of the hull has been fitted with additional armour protection against mines. The driver and crew compartments are equipped with heating and cooling air conditioning and a Shalon Chemical Industries combined individual and overpressure protection systems against contamination by NBC warfare.
 
Economic Aspects
 
Acquisition and manufacturing
About 200 factories take part in the manufacturing of the tank (main contractors and subcontractors). The major manufacturers include: Elbit - El Op (control systems), the IDF (main construction, assembly and testing), IMI (main gun, protection components and transmission) Urdan (armor castings), IAI-Ramta (protection components). The majority of the manufacturing is performed by the private sector. The rest is performed by the IDF and state-owned industries.
Economic advantage
The production of the Merkava tank has proved itself throughout its generations as economically preferable to foreign tanks of the same technological generation. This advantage continues with the new Merkava Mk-4 who's cost is considerably lower than that of comparable tanks in the world.
IDF Armor School Preparing To Train The First "Merkava Mark 4" Tank Crew
 
March 13, 2003 
Instructors at the IDF Armor School are preparing to train the first IDF "Merkava Mark 4" tank crew members. 
The "Merkava Mark 4" crew will undergo standard basic training, followed by a specialized tank course to acquire a proficiency in the following areas: communications, driving, and artillery. 
After completing the above-mentioned courses, the crew enters the final phase of training, during which they will learn how to function as a team, platoon, and company.
  Key Data  
Crew                 4, driver, commander, gunner, loader                                                 
                            Dimensions 
Length with gun forward                      9.04m
Width without skirts                              3.72m
Height to turret roof                             2.66m
Weight                                             65t 
V-12 diesel engine                        1,500hp            
                  
Maximum speed                             over 60km/h                
Cross country speed                           up to 55km/h            
Range                              500km                    
Weapons    
Main gun                            120mm                  
Ammunition on board                    48 rounds         
Ready to fire rounds                    10
Machine gun                      7.62mm                  
Mortar                           60mm                  
Mortar range                        2,700m            
 

 
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سلاح های اسرائيلی۱
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ٢:٢۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٦/۱/۳۱
 

 

 Galil AR
Standard and original version of the Galil 7.62mm.
 
 

Galil AR
Standard and original version of the Galil 5.56mm.
 
 
Click to enlarge
Galil SAR 
This is the weapons that most soldiers who carry the Galil will spend their service with.
 
 
Galil Sniper Rifle
Galil Sniper Rifle GALAT'Z that introduced in the mid 1980's is the sniping modified version of the Galil 7.62 mm Assault Rifle.
 
 
 
Galil MAR
Smallest member of the Galil Assault Rifle Family - the Micro Galil Assault rifle (MAR).
 
 
 
 
Click to enlargeClick to enlarge
Click to enlarge
 
 
The experience, gained by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) during the Six Day War (1967), showed the deficiencies of the FN FAL rifles, which were the main armament of the IDF infantry. The FAL rifles were too sensitive to fine sand and dust of Arab deserts, and too long and bulky to carry and maneuver. On the other hand, the same war showed the advantages of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifles, used by Arab infantry with great success. After the end of this war IDF decided to develop a new assault rifle, which will eventually replace the FN FAL battle rifles and some of the UZI submachine guns. It was also decided that the new assault rifle should be built around the new American low-impulse cartridge, known as 5.56x45mm. During the late 1960s the IDF tested two rival designs, one of the Uziel Gal, and the other of the Israel Galili. The latter design, based on the Finnish Valmet Rk.62 assault rifle (a license-built AK-47 clone), eventually won the competition and was selected as a new IDF assault rifle in the 1973, but its actual adoption was delayed by the next Israeli-Arab Yom Kippur War (1973). The machinery and documentation package was bought from Valmet and transferred to the state owned Israel Military Industries (IMI) company. There are some rumors that the first production Galil rifles were built on the Valmet-made receivers. Although also produced in caliber 7.62mm to increase its sales on the world market, the Galil rifle as issued to the IDF is chambered for the 5.56mm. 

There are three basic configurations of the 5.56mm Galil. The AR is equipped with a high-impact-plastic handguard without a bipod or carrying handle with the flash suppressor. The SAR is a short-barreled version of the AR model its gas tube and piston are shorter than the other models.

Israel Military Industries has by no means decided that their Galil is beyond modification or improvement. For example, they came to realize that, by nature of its length, the Galil was not well-suited for close quarters engagements. Of course, the 9mm Uzi functions well in this arena, but there is quite a disparity between the Uzi's inherent firepower and that of the 5.56mm Galil. One solution that IMI has advanced to reduce size without losing firepower is an ultra-compact version of the Galil.

While being a successful weapon, the Galil was not widely issued to the IDF during its lifetime, because during the late 1960s and early 1970s Israel received large shipments of the US M16 and CAR-15 assault rifles at the very low prices. M16 rifles became the major armament of the IDF, with the Galils mostly issued to the Armored corps, Artillery corps and some units of the Israeli Air Forces (Anti-Aircraft forces). The Galil rifles were exported to the various South American, African and Asian countries. Estonia also received some Galil rifles in the early 2000s. The slightly modified Galil rifle is manufactured by the South African Vektor company, a division of the DENEL. Those models included the R-4 (Galil AR), R-5 (Galil SAR) and R-6 (Galil MAR) assault rifles, and are used by the South African Military. Another offspring of the Galil is the Croatian APS-95 assault rifle. The semi-automatic only versions of the both 5.56mm and 7.62mm Galil AR rifles were widely sold to both domestic and foreign civilian and law enforcement markets.

As a combat weapon, the Galil is used today only in the Armored corps, Artillery corps, and some stationary elements in the Israel Air Force (Anti Aircraft). And the IDF already had enough Galil weapons to last it a lifetime.

The Galil is also intended for sporting purposes, that version being provided with a longer barrel, a fixed stock and is semi-automatic only.

 
 
 
Basically, the Galil assault rifle can be described as a modified Kalashnikov AK-47 design, and a detailed description of its functioning can be found in respective article at this site. The key differences between the Galil and the AK-47 are as follows. The Galil featured a machined steel receivers of the original AK-47 rifles, but of slightly different shape. The AK-47-style safety - selector switch at the right side of the gun is complemented by the additional smaller switch at the left side of the receiver, above the pistol handle. The cocking handle is bent upward, so it can be operated with either hand. The sights of the Galil featured a front hooded post, mounted on the gas block, with the rear diopter sight, mounted on the receiver top cover. Rear sight is of the flip-up type, with settings for 300 and 500 meters. Additional folding night sights with luminous inserts can be raised into position, which allows to aim the gun in the low light conditions at the ranges of up to 100 meters. The barrel and the flash hider can be used to launch the rifle grenades from the barrel, using the blanc or live cartridges (depending on the rifle grenade type). The Galil ARM also features a folding detachable bipods and a carrying handle. The bipod base incorporates a bottle opener and a wire cutter. The standard folding buttstock is patterned after FN FAL Para,  folds to the right to save the space. Some of the late production Micro-Galil (MAR) rifles also are fitted with the Picatinny-type rail, which allows to mount various sighting devices. Standard AR and ARM rifles can be fitted with scope mounting rail on the left side of the receiver. All 5.56mm Galil rifles are fed using proprietary 35 or 50 rounds curved box magazines with AK-47 style locking. M16-type magazines can be used via the special adapter. 7.62mm Galil rifles are fed using proprietary 25 rounds box magazines. Civilian semi-automatic Galil variants sometimes are fitted with 10 rounds magazines to comply with local firearms laws. 
 
Micro Galil
 

 
Israel Military Industries (IMI) recently unveiled a new version of the youngest and smallest member of the Galil Assault Rifle (AR) Family - the Galil Micro Assault rifle (MAR), known as the MAR Tactical.

In addition to its standard Galil assault rifle, IMI is producing what is believed to be the shortest assault rifle in the world, the Micro-Galil. This 5.56mm rifle has attracted interest from European law enforcement agencies seeking longer-range weapons for key point protection in non-urban areas. As is the case with the Uzi, three different markets exist: military, law-enforcement and civilian. 

The Micro Galil was supposed to have a bright future - it was due to enter the IDF at mass numbers, replacing the Galil Short Assault Rifle (SAR) as the IDF Armored and Artillery Corps new PDW. However, due to a serious flaw in the Galil MAR handguards design the handguards rapidly became hot during firing, to the point that it was impossible to hold the weapon. 

Couple of years ago IMI did come with a much improved, redesigned version of Galil MAR, with a completely new, thicker and much better protecting hand guard, a coal-fibre and more ergonomically designed folded stock instead of a steel one, which made Galil MAR slightly lighter, and an extra standard rail, to mount an eventual extra equipment on the rifle.  With this new redesigned Galil MAR, all old problems are gone.

 
  
Caliber
5.56 x 45 mm
7.62 x 51 mm
Ammunition
M855, SS109
7.62 x 51 mm NATO
Operation
Gas action on piston head
Locking method
Rotating bolt, locking lugs
Feed
35 rd. Magazine
25 rd. Magazine
Barrel 
6 grooves 1:7" RH twist
4 grooves 1:12" RH twist
Weight (gr.)
Rifle, unloaded
ARM
4350
4350
AR
3950
3950
SAR
3750
3750
MAR
2980
-
SNIPER
-
6000
Empty magazine
320
320
Loaded magazine
720
720
Length (mm)
Overall
ARM & AR
978
1026
SAR
850
918
MAR
710
-
SNIPER
-
1112
With stock folded
ARM & AR
742
790
SAR
614
682
MAR
460
-
SNIPER
-
845
Overall
ARM & AR
460
508
SAR
332
400
MAR
195
-
SNIPER
-
508
Sights
Front
Post
Rear
Aperture, L-Flip Set for 300 & 500 m
Night sights (option)
Folded, tritium
Telescopic sight (sniper) 
Nimrod 6x40
Sight radius (mm)
ARM & AR
475
475
SAR
445
445
MAR
310
-
SNIPER
-
475
Firing Characteristics
Trigger pulling force (kg)
2.5 - 4.0
Muzzle velocity (m/sec)
ARM & AR
915
850
SAR
850
800
MAR
710
-
SNIPER
-
~800
Rate of fire (rd./min)
ARM & AR
630-700
SAR
MAR
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
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کارخانه فراری
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ٢:٤۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٦/۱/۳٠
 


 
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عکسهایی از قم با google earth
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ٢:٠٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٦/۱/۳٠
 

نمای کلی دانشگاه قممجموعه ساختمانهای فنی - علوم پایه(بلوک 15)،رشته های انسانی(بلوک 16) و خوابگاههاواحد خواهران

حرم حضرت معصومه(س)


 
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اسرای انگلیسی در ایران
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٥۸ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٦/۱/۱٥
 

 شبكه تلويزيونی «العالم» ايران برای نخستین‌بار از زمان بازداشت 15 ملوان و تفنگدار نظامی بریتانیایی در جمعه گذشته، تصاويری از این نظامیان را روز سه‌شنبه بر روی آنتن برد. پس از العالم، بخش خبری ساعت 21 شبكه اول سيمای جمهوری اسلامی نيز روز چهارشنبه اين تصاوير را به همراه مصاحبه‌ای با ملوان زن انگليسی به نمایش گذاشت. بدین‌ترتیب، مقامات دولت لندن که ظهر چهارشنبه در واکنشی خشمگینانه تمام روابط دولتی بریتانیا با جمهوری اسلامی را به حالت تعلیق درآورده بودند، عصر امروز بار دیگر به واکنش برخواسته و پخش این تصاویر را محکوم کردند.


 
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عکسهایی که برای اولین بار دیده اید
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٥٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٥/۱٢/٢٥
 

عکسهایی که برای اولین بار دیده اید

گاندي

جنازه ایندیرا گاندی پس از ترور توسط محافظش


نجيب الله

 صحنه به دار آویخته شدن محمد نجیب الله رئیس جمهور کمونیست افغانستان  توسط طالبان


لنين و استالين
 جنازه لنین و استالین دو رهبر کمونیست در موزه مسکو


پاپ
 تصویری از جنازه پاپ ژان پل دوم(از تصاویر منتخب سال2005)


قاتل كندي

 صحنه کشته شدن مظنون به قتل جان اف کندی رئیس جمهور آمریکا(عکس ازAssociated Press)
صحنه های کشتن این فرد به طور مستقیم از تلویزیون آمریکا بصورت مستقیم پخش می شد.


بودا

صحنه خودسوزی تیچ کوانگ داک(Thich Quang Duc) راهب بودائی بخاطر ممنوعیتهای مذهبی

این عکس توسط ملکون براون عکاس خبرگزاری آسوشیتدپرس در سال 1963 در منطقه سایگون در ویتنام جنوبی گرفته شد.این راهب بودائی در اعتراض به دولت مرکزی بخاطر تحت تعقیب قرارگرفتن افراد آنهم فقط بدلیل مذهبشان خودسوزی میکند.


موسيليني و همسرش

 به نمایش عموم قرار دادن جنازه موسیلینی و همسرش توسط پارتیزنها پس از کشتن ایشان


هيتلر

 تصویر هیتلر دیکتاتور منفور بعد از خودکشی در صحرای سیبری روسیه


چه گوارا
 "چه گوارا" بعد از کشته شدن در بولیوی
در این عکس فرد پیراهن سفید (فرد ایستاده سمت چپ) کسی نیست جز
 Julio G. García
مامور سازمان جاسوسی آمریکا(سیا) و دیگری فردی به نام Gustavo Villoldo



دسته گل بمب گذاري شده
 راجیو گاندی دست گل بمب گذاری شده را تحویل میگیرد و به قتل میرسد


سونامي

 تصویری از یکی از قربانیان حداثه سونامی در جنوب شرق آسیا


سي 130

از قربانیان هواپیمای سی- 130 ارتش


بم
تصویر پدری که دو کودک دوقلوی خود را از زیر آوار زلزله بهم خارج میکند و قصد خاکسپاری آنان را دارد.


هيروشيما
 هیروشیما در اولین روزهای بعد از بمباران اتمی آمریکا



 
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چهارشنبه سوری
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٥۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٥/۱٢/٢٥
 

چهارشنبه سوری از سنن قدیمی ایرانیان است. در شب آخرين چهارشنبه سال ( يعني نزديک غروب آفتاب روز سه شنبه )، بيرون از خانه، جلو در، در فضايي مناسب، آتشي مي افروزند، و اهل خانه، زن و مرد و کودک از روي آتش مي پرند و با گفتن : « زردي من از تو، سرخي تو از من » بيماري ها و ناراحتي ها و نگراني هاي سال کهنه را به آتش مي سپارند، تا سال نو را با آسودگي و شادي آغاز کنند. تا زماني که از ظرف هاي سفالين چون، کاسه و بشقاب و کوزه، در خانه استفاده مي شد، پس از خانه تکاني، کوزه کهنه اي از پشت بام خانه به کوچه مي انداختند؛ کوزه اي که در آن آب و چند سکه ريخته بودند. اسفند دود کردن و آجيل خوردن، فال گرفتن، فال گوش ( در کوي و گذر به حرف عابران گوش دادن و از مضمون آن ها براي نيت خود تفال زدن. ) و قاشق زني ( معمولا زنان روي خود را مي پوشانند و با قاشق، يا کليد به خانه ها در مي زنند، صاحب خانه شيريني، ميوه و يا پول در ظرف آنها مي گذارد). نيز از باورها و رسم هايي است که به ويژه در بين نوجوانان، هنوز به کلي فراموش نشده است. اين رسم ها و باورها در شهرهاي مختلف با يکديگر متفاوت اند.


 
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اولین عرب درقطب
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٤۸ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٥/۱٢/٢٥
 

ابراهیم شرف از دوبی اولین جهانگرد عربی است که از اویماکون واقع در منطقه قطبی یاکوتیا دیدن کرده است. شرف اولین جهانگرد عربی است که پا به سرزمینی گذاشته که دمای هوای آن به 70 درجه زیر صفر می رسد. وی که 20 سال است با بازرگانان و دریانوردان روس کار می کند، 1900 مایل دریایی را در یک کشتی یخ شکن پیمود تا به ماگادان رسید. این جهانگرد 2500 کیلومتر فاصله میان ماگادان تا اویمیاکون را طی کرد، تا یک سفر افسانه‌ای را در سفرنامه خود به یادگار بگذارد.


 
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کارت پستال‌های باستانی!
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٤٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٥/۱٢/٢٢
 

 مسیحیت را آیین نمادها می دانند، از صلیب کشیشان و شال بنفش گرفته تا مبارزات نمادین صالحین با «آنتی کرایست». نمادها اما همچنان که در آیین مسیحیت کاربرد دارند در زدنگی مردمان هم تاثیر گذارند. نمونه‌ای از حضور پررنگ این نمادها در زندگی مسیحیان را می‌توان در جشن‌های سال نوی میلادی یافت زمانی که بابانوئل‌ها سوار بر سورتمه در نیمه شبی تاریک شادمانی را به همگان هدیه می‌دهند.


 
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حرفه‌ای‌ترین عکسهای یاهو
نویسنده : طاها داریوندی - ساعت ۱:٤۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٥/۱٢/٢٢
 

 یاهو به عنوان یکی از معتبرترین و پربیننده‌ترین سایت‌های جهان امکانات متنوعی را در اختیار بییندگان خود قرار می‌دهد. بخش خبری این سایت نیز با دراختیارگرفتن اخبار و تصاویر لحظه به لحظه از معتبرترین خبرگزاری‌ها و شبکه‌های خبری تبدیل به یک مرجع قابل اتکا برای بازدیدکنندگان شده است. تصاویر ارائه شده زیر که از میان انبوه تصاویر منتشره در یک هفته اخیر انتخاب شده‌اند به باور دبیران یاهو دارای بالاترین معیارهای عکاسی بوده و همزمان به شهادت آمار بازدیدکنندگان در زمره جذاب‌ترین و پرطرفدارترین تصاویر منتشر شده قرار داشته‌اند.

   

   

     

     

       

      

       


 
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